Brinjal is cultivated almost throughout the year. Its cultivation is done in all the districts of the state. It is beneficial for diabetics.
Climate and Land –
It requires a warm climate for good harvest. Frost has more effect. Therefore, spring crop should not be taken in those areas where there is frost. Loamy soil is considered best for the cultivation of brinjal. The soil should have good friability and good drainage. ,
Improved Varieties –
Varieties should be selected on the basis of market demand and popularity. There are two types of varieties found in it – long and round brinjal.
• Long Fruit- Pusa Purple Long, Pusa Purple Cluster, Pusa Kanti, Pant Samrat, Azad Kanti, S-16, Punjab Evergreen, ARU-2-C, H-7 etc.
• Round Fruit – Pusa Purple Round, H-4, P-8, Pusa Anmol, Pant Rituraj, T-3, H-8, DBSR-31, PB-91-2, K-202-9, DBR-8, A B-1 etc.
• Small round fruit – DBSR-44 , PLR-1
• Hybrid varieties – Arka Navneet, Pusa Hybrid-6, Pusa Hybrid-2
Nursery Preparation –
One meter wide and 3 meters long to prepare one hectare plant. About 15 to 20 beds are required. Before sowing seeds should be treated with thiram or | Treat with Captan at the rate of 2 grams per kg of seed. If there is a problem of nematode disease, then 8 to 10 grams of carbofuran at the rate of 3g per square meter in the soil. Meet me. In the nursery, sow the seeds in rows at an interval of 5 cm. Nursery beds should be made 10-15 cm high from the ground. For planting seedlings in one hectare, 400-500 grams of seed is required.
Field preparation and manures and fertilizers –
Along with sowing the seeds in the nursery, the preparation of the field should also be started. Do 3-4 plowing of the field. Plow 120 to 150 quintals of rotted cow dung or compost by mixing it well per hectare. Before final ploughing, mix 40 kg nitrogen, 80 kg phosphorous and 60 kg potash at the rate of 60 kg per hectare in the field and prepare beds of appropriate size. In hybrid varieties, 60 kg nitrogen should be given at the time of last plowing and the amount of phosphorus and potash should be kept as before. After 20 days of planting seedlings and at the time of flowering, 20-20 kg of nitrogen should be sprayed twice on the crop. Keep this quantity 30-30 kg in hybrid varieties.
Time of sowing –
Brinjal crop can be taken thrice a year.
नर्सरी तैयार करने का समय
खेत में रोपाई का समय
फरवरी - मार्च
मार्च - अप्रैल
जुन - जुलाई
जुलाई - अगस्त
अक्टूबर - नवम्बर
Planting and spacing –
When the height of the seedlings becomes 10 to 15 cm, then remove them carefully and transplant them in the prepared field in the evening. Keep row to row distance 60-70 cm and plant to plant distance 60 cm.
Irrigation should be done at an interval of 4 to 5 days in summer and 10 to 15 days in winter season. Irrigation should be done in rainy season as per requirement. Using drip irrigation method, the drip should be run for 30 to 60 minutes on the second day.
Plant Protection –
Pest Management –
• Green teal, moyla, whitefly and reticulated wing bug – These insects weaken the plants by sucking the juice from the underside of the leaves or the soft part of the plants, this has an adverse effect on the yield. These insects also help in spreading the virus. For its control, spray one ml dimethoate (30 EC) or malathion (50 EC) or imidacloprid @ 0.5 ml per liter of water.
• Hada (Eplecna) Beetle – The outbreak of this insect is often limited. For its control, apply Malathion 5% powder at the rate of 20 kg per hectare.
• Fruit and stem borer – Due to the attack of this insect, the growing branches wither and get destroyed. Fruits get holes due to which the quality of the fruit is reduced. For control, the affected branches and fruits should be plucked and destroyed. On fruit formation, sprinkle quinalphos @ 2 ml or acephate 75 sp @ 0.5 g per liter of water. Repeat spraying after 15 to 20 days as needed. There should be a gap of 7-10 days between spraying the medicine and plucking the fruit.
Disease Management –
• Small leaf disease – This is a devastating disease caused by mycoplasma of brinjal. Due to the outbreak of this disease, the leaves remain small and appear in the form of clusters growing on the stems. The whole sick plant looks like a bush and fruits are not formed on such plants. Diseased plants should be uprooted and destroyed for control. This disease is spread by green oil, so for its prevention, spray 0.5 ml Phosphomidan 85 SL or one ml Dimethoate 30 EC per liter and repeat this spray after 15 days as per the need.
• Scorching disease- Brown and dark brown spots are formed on the leaves. Ring-like webs start appearing in the spots. For control, spray Mancozeb or Zineb solution of 2 gm per liter of water. Repeat this spray at intervals of 10 to 15 days as per need.
• Wet rot disease – This disease occurs in the small stage of plants. Due to its wrath, the part of the plant situated on the surface of the ground turns black and becomes weak and the plants fall and die. This disease spreads through soil and seeds. For control, treat seeds per kilogram of Captan or Thiram at the rate of 3 grams per kg of seed. Before sowing in nursery, add thiram or captan to the soil at the rate of 4 to 5 grams per square meter. The beds should be raised 4 to 6 inches from the surrounding land.
Harvesting and Yield –
Harvest the fruits when the crop is ready to be sent to the market. Its yield is about 200 to 250 quintals per hectare, while the hybrid varieties can yield up to 350 to 400 quintals per hectare.
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